The fluid used for the heat transfer within a refrigeration system. The refrigerant absorbs heat at low temperature and pressure and transfers heat at high temperature and pressure. The refrigerant can be many materials, commonly fluorocarbon compounds, but also natural refrigerants such as ammonia, CO2, hydrocarbons as well as other compounds such as water and air.
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Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without using fans or other mechanical systems. It can be via operable windows, louvers, or trickle vents when spaces are small and the architecture permits. In more complex schemes, warm air is allowed to rise and flow out high building openings to the outside (stack effect), causing cool outside air to be drawn into low building openings. Natural ventilation schemes can use very little energy, but care must be taken to ensure comfort. In warm or humid climates, maintaining thermal comfort solely via natural ventilation might not be possible. Air conditioning systems are used, either as backups or supplements. Air-side economizers also use outside air to condition spaces, but do so using fans, ducts, dampers, and control systems to introduce and distribute cool outdoor air when appropriate.